• Rheumatology Therapeutics

    Who we are, what we do, and how we can help you!

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  • Rheumatic Diseases We Treat

    Rheumatic disease can dramatically affect your life. Find out more…

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  • Services Offered

    Doctors Boris Ratiner and Jenny Oh take an engaged, personal approach in caring for their patients.

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  • Physical Therapy Center

    RTMC Therapy Center is dedicated to the total rehabilitation of our patients

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  • Testimonials

    I have been to several Rheumatologist and Dr. Ratiner is the best.

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Rheumatic Diseases We Treat

+Ankylosing Spondylitis

  • What is Ankylosing Spondylitis
    Read About Ankylosing Spondylitis* or See List of Common Question and Answers**: Spondylitis involves inflammation of one or more vertebrae. Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the joints between the vertebrae of the spine, and the joints between the spine and the pelvis. It eventually causes the affected vertebrae to fuse or....What is Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis
    Who gets Ankylosing Spondylitis? Men, women and children can all suffer from Ankylosing Spondylitis. It typically strikes people in their late teens and twenties, with the average age being 24. However, symptoms can start at other periods of life. Ankylosing Spondylitis is more common in men, with nearly three times as many men having it....Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis FAQ
    What does ankylosing spondylitis mean? Ankylosing means fusing together. Spondylitis indicates inflammation of the vertebrae. Both words come from the Greek. So, Ankylosing Spondylitis describes the condition by which some or all of the joints and bones of the spine fuse together. Entire fusing of the spine is unusual. Many people will only have partial....Ankylosing Spondylitis FAQ
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis Treated
    Will I need surgery ? It is unlikely. Surgery plays a very small part in the management of this condition. About 6% of people with Ankylosing Spondylitis need to have a hip replaced. This will successfully restore mobility and eliminate pain of the damaged joint. In rare cases surgery is used to restore a straighter....Ankylosing Spondylitis Treated
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+Bechet's Syndrome

  • What Is Behçets Syndrome
    What Is Behçet’s Syndrome? The syndrome was first described in 1937 by Dr. Helusi Behçet, a professor of dermatology in Istanbul. Behçet’s syndrome is now recognized as a chronic condition that causes sores or ulcers in the mouth and on the genitals, and inflammation in parts of the eye. In some people, the syndrome also....What Is Behçets Syndrome
  • Behçets Symptoms
    What Are the Symptoms of Behçet’s Syndrome? Behçet’s syndrome affects each person differently. Some people have only mild symptoms, such as skin sores or ulcers in the mouth or on the genitals. Others have more severe syndrome, such as meningitis or inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can cause....Behçets Symptoms
  • Behçets Syndrome Diagnosis
    How Is Behçet’s Syndrome Diagnosed? Diagnosing Behçet’s syndrome is very difficult because no specific test confirms it. Less than half of the patients initially thought to have Behçet’s syndrome actually have it. The doctor must examine a patient with symptoms and rule out other conditions with similar symptoms. Because it may take several months or....Behçets Syndrome Diagnosis
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+Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • What is carpal tunnel syndrome
    You’re working at your desk, trying to ignore the tingling or numbness you’ve had for months in your hand and wrist. Suddenly, a sharp, piercing pain shoots through the wrist and up your arm. Just a passing cramp? More likely you have carpal tunnel syndrome, a painful progressive condition caused by compression of a key....What is carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Carpal tunnel diagnosed
    Who is at risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome? Women are three times more likely than men to develop carpal tunnel syndrome, perhaps because the carpal tunnel itself may be smaller in women than in men. The dominant hand is usually affected first and produces the most severe pain. Persons with diabetes or other metabolic....Carpal tunnel diagnosed
  • Carpal Tunnel Treatment
    How is carpal tunnel syndrome treated? Treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome should begin as early as possible, under a doctor’s direction. Underlying causes such as diabetes or arthritis should be treated first. Initial treatment generally involves resting the affected hand and wrist for at least 2 weeks, avoiding activities that may worsen symptoms, and immobilizing....Carpal Tunnel Treatment
  • Carpal Tunnel Prevention
    How can carpal tunnel syndrome be prevented? At the workplace, workers can do on-the-job conditioning, perform stretching exercises, take frequent rest breaks, wear splints to keep wrists straight, and use correct posture and wrist position. Wearing fingerless gloves can help keep hands warm and flexible. Workstations, tools and tool handles, and tasks can be redesigned....Carpal Tunnel Prevention
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+Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    What is complex regional pain syndrome? Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that is believed to be the result of dysfunction in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Typical features include dramatic changes in the color and temperature of the skin over the affected limb or body part, accompanied by intense....Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Complex Regional Pain Symptoms
    What causes CRPS? Doctors aren’t sure what causes CRPS. In some cases the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in sustaining the pain. The most recent theories suggest that pain receptors in the affected part of the body become responsive to a family of nervous system messengers known as catecholamines. Animal studies indicate that....Complex Regional Pain Symptoms
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+CREST

  • What is Crest Syndrome
    Limited scleroderma typically comes on gradually and affects the skin only in certain areas: the fingers, hands, face, lower arms, and legs. Many people with limited disease have Raynaud’s phenomenon for years before skin thickening starts. Others start out with skin problems over much of the body, which improves over time, leaving only the face....What is Crest Syndrome
  • Systemic Scleroderma Affects
    Here are some of the potential problems that can occur in systemic scleroderma and the medical and nonmedical treatments for them. (These problems do not occur as a result or complication of localized scleroderma.) [Note: This is not a complete listing of problems or their treatments. Different people experience different problems with scleroderma and not....Systemic Scleroderma Affects
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+Crohn’s disease

  • Crohns Disease Symptoms
    Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) are both associated with a number of extra-intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases. Arthritis is the most common extracolonic manifestation of chronic UC. Patients with Crohn’s disease also have an increased prevalence of inflammatory joint disease although arthritis is more common in patients with colitic disease than small bowel inflammation alone.....Crohns Disease Symptoms
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+Dermatomyositis

  • Dermatomyositis or Polymositis
    What is Dermatomyositis/Polymositis? Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis are inflammatory muscle disease that causes varying degrees of decreased muscle power. Dermatomysitis also involves the skin but polymyositis does not. With dermatomyositis, you develop a violet or deep reddish-purple rash. The disease has a gradual onset and generally begins in the second decade of life. Polymyositis rarely affects....Dermatomyositis or Polymositis
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+Fibromyalgia

  • What Is Fibromyalgia
    General Description of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Fibromyalgia (also called fibrositis or fibromyositis) is a syndrome of unknown causes that results in chronic, sometimes debilitating muscle pain and fatigue. Pain. The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is pain, both pain experienced in certain precise locations called tender points and generalized pain [See Criteria for Classifying Fibromyalgia]. The pain....What Is Fibromyalgia
  • What Causes Fibromyalgia
    Fibromyalgia is sometimes categorized as primary or secondary; primary fibromyalgia is the more common form. The cause or causes of primary fibromyalgia (also called idiopathic fibromyalgia ) are not known. Many experts believe that fibromyalgia is not a disease but rather a dysfunctional disorder caused by a constellation of biologic responses to stress in individuals....What Causes Fibromyalgia
  • Who Gets Fibromyalgia
    Prevalence Studies report that between 1.3% and 2% of the general population meet the diagnostic criteria. Specific Risk Factors Some evidence suggests that a number of factors may predispose people to fibromyalgia, including being female, having had difficult experiences in childhood, having a psychological vulnerability to stress, and coming from a very stressful culture or....Who Gets Fibromyalgia
  • How is Fibromyalgia Diagnosed
    Diagnostic Criteria There is no unequivocal objective method for diagnosing the fibromyalgia. The criteria used for studying fibromyalgia are very helpful, particularly if the patient does not have any accompanying disorder, such as depression or arthritis, that could complicate the diagnosis. Failure to meet the criteria, however, does not rule out fibromyalgia. It should be....How is Fibromyalgia Diagnosed
  • Fibromyalgia Look Alikes
    WHAT CONDITIONS RESEMBLE FIBROMYALGIA?Between 10% and 30% of all doctors’ office visits are due to symptoms that resemble those of fibromyalgia, including fatigue, malaise, and general muscle pain [see Table, below]. No laboratory test can confirm a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, and if tests for tender spots are ambiguous, physicians will rule out other conditions. It....Fibromyalgia Look Alikes
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+Gout

  • What is Gout
    The Processes in the Body Leading to Hyperuricemia and Gout Gout is a type of arthritis (inflammation of the joints) that mostly affects men age 40 and older. It is nearly always associated with chronic hyperuricemia, a long-lasting abnormally high concentration of uric acid in the blood.   Metabolism of Purines The process leading to....What is Gout
  • What causes gout
    Gout is classified as either primary (the most common type) or secondary, depending on the cause of the associated hyperuricemia. In both types of gout, between 70% and 95% of hyperuricemia cases are the result of under-excretion of uric acid, rather than uric acid overproduction. Primary Gout More than 99% of primary gout cases are....What causes gout
  • Symptoms of Gout
    Gout is often divided into four symptomatic stages: Asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Acute gouty arthritis. Intercritical gout. Chronic tophaceous gout. Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia Asymptomatic hyperuricemia, in which MSU slowly builds up, always precedes gout and is considered the first stage of the disorder. It lasts for an average of 30 years. Note: Hyperuricemia does not inevitably lead to....Symptoms of Gout
  • Symptoms Similar to Gout
    The following diseases also cause joint and muscle pain: Disease Specific Subtypes Osteoarthritis Infectious Arthritis   Lyme disease, septic arthritis, bacterial endocarditis, mycobacterial and fungal arthritis, viral arthritis Postinfectious or Reactive Arthritis   Reiter’s syndrome (a disorder characterized by arthritis and inflammation in the eye and urinary tract), rheumatic fever, inflammatory bowel disease Pseudogout Rheumatic Autoimmune....Symptoms Similar to Gout
  • Triggers for Gout Symptoms
    Gout symptoms may be precipitated by various conditions including the following: Severe illness (an important trigger). Between 20% to 86% of patients with gout experience a recurrence when they are hospitalized. Gout accompanies and can be exacerbated by serious conditions that are associated with kidney and heart disease including diabetes, obesity, unhealthy cholesterol levels, insulin....Triggers for Gout Symptoms
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+Heptitis C Arthritis

  • Heptitis C Arthritis
    A sero-negative arthritis is present in up to 20% of subjects with long standing HCV infection. Other common manifestations are carpal tunnel syndrome in 6%, Raynaud’s phenomenon in 3.5%, and symptoms of Sjogren’s syndrome in 8.7%. Up to 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C may have low levels of cryoglobulins in serum, but only....Heptitis C Arthritis
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+Infectious Arthritis

  • Infectious Arthritis
    What is infectious arthritis? Infectious arthritis causes pain and swelling in the joints. Joints are the places where two or more bones come together. The pain and swelling is called inflammation. The inflammation is caused by a germ. The germ can be a bacterium (back-teer-e-um), a virus, or a fungus. Infectious arthritis normally affects only....Infectious Arthritis
  • Infectious Arthritis Symptoms
    What causes infectious arthritis? Infectious arthritis is caused by a germ that has travelled through the body to a joint. The germ can be a bacterium, a virus or a fungus. The germ may have entered your body through the skin, nose, throat or ears, or through a wound. Often you may have already been....Infectious Arthritis Symptoms
  • Infectious Arthritis Treatments
    Medications Anti-inflammatory medication is often given to treat the pain and swelling of infectious arthritis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a type of medication that helps reduce the pain and swelling of the joints and decrease stiffness. However, they do not prevent further joint damage. NSAIDs reduce pain when taken at a low dose, and....Infectious Arthritis Treatments
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+Low Back / Neck Pain

  • What Causes Lower Back Pain
    If you have lower back pain, you are not alone. Nearly everyone at some point has back pain that interferes with work, routine daily activities, or recreation. Americans spend at least $50 billion each year on low back pain, the most common cause of job-related disability and a leading contributor to missed work. Back pain....What Causes Lower Back Pain
  • Who develops lower back pain
    Who is most likely to develop low back pain? Nearly everyone has low back pain sometime. Men and women are equally affected. It occurs most often between ages 30 and 50, due in part to the aging process but also as a result of sedentary life styles with too little (sometimes punctuated by too much)....Who develops lower back pain
  • How is low back pain diagnosed
    How is low back pain diagnosed? A thorough medical history and physical exam can usually identify any dangerous conditions or family history that may be associated with the pain. The patient describes the onset, site, and severity of the pain; duration of symptoms and any limitations in movement; and history of previous episodes or any....How is low back pain diagnosed
  • How is back pain treated
    How is back pain treated? Most low back pain can be treated without surgery. Treatment involves using analgesics, reducing inflammation, restoring proper function and strength to the back, and preventing recurrence of the injury. Most patients with back pain recover without residual functional loss. Patients should contact a doctor if there is not a noticeable....How is back pain treated
  • Back Pain Prevention
    Can back pain be prevented? Recurring back pain resulting from improper body mechanics or other non-traumatic causes is often preventable. A combination of exercises that don’t jolt or strain the back, maintaining correct posture, and lifting objects properly can help prevent injuries. Many work-related injuries are caused or aggravated by stressors such as heavy lifting,....Back Pain Prevention
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+Lupus

  • What is Lupus
    Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various parts of the body, especially the skin, joints, blood, and kidneys. The body’s immune system normally makes proteins called antibodies to protect the body against viruses, bacteria, and other foreign materials. These foreign materials are called antigens. In an autoimmune disorder such as lupus, the....What is Lupus
  • Lupus Symptoms
    Although lupus can affect any part of the body, most people experience symptoms in only a few organs. The Table Of Symptoms lists the most common symptoms of people with lupus. TABLE OF SYMPTOMS Symptoms Occurrence Achy joints (arthralgia) 95% Fever more than 100 degrees F (38 degrees C) 90% Arthritis (swollen joints) 90% Prolonged....Lupus Symptoms
  • What Causes Lupus
    The cause(s) of lupus is unknown, but there are environmental and genetic factors involved. While scientists believe there is a genetic predisposition to the disease, it is known that environmental factors also play a critical role in triggering lupus. Some of the environmental factors that may trigger the disease are: infections, antibiotics (especially those in....What Causes Lupus
  • Lupus Diagnosis
    Because many lupus symptoms mimic other illnesses, are sometimes vague and may come and go, lupus can be difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis is usually made by a careful review of a person’s entire medical history coupled with an analysis of the results obtained in routine laboratory tests and some specialized tests related to immune status.....Lupus Diagnosis
  • Lupus Treatment
    For the vast majority of people with lupus, effective treatment can minimize symptoms, reduce inflammation, and maintain normal bodily functions. Preventive measures can reduce the risk of flares. For photosensitive patients, avoidance of (excessive) sun exposure and/or the regular application of sun screens will usually prevent rashes. Regular exercise helps prevent muscle weakness and fatigue.....Lupus Treatment
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+Osteoarthritis

  • What Is Osteoarthritis
    Osteoarthritis (AH-stee-oh-ar-THREYE-tis) is the most common type of arthritis, especially among older people. Sometimes it is called degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that mostly affects the cartilage (KAR-til-uj). Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Healthy cartilage allows bones to glide over one another.....What Is Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoarthritis Basics
    Most joints–the place where two moving bones come together–are designed to allow smooth movement between the bones and to absorb shock from movements like walking or repetitive movements. The joint is made up of: Cartilage: a hard but slippery coating on the end of each bone. Cartilage, which breaks down and wears away in osteoarthritis, is....Osteoarthritis Basics
  • Osteoarthritis Affect
    Osteoarthritis affects each person differently. In some people, it progresses quickly; in others, the symptoms are more serious. Scientists do not know yet what causes the disease, but they suspect a combination of factors, including being overweight, the aging process, joint injury, and stresses on the joints from certain jobs and sports activities. What Areas....Osteoarthritis Affect
  • Who Has Osteoarthritis
    Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent causes of physical disability among adults. More than 20 million people in the United States have the disease. By 2030, 20 percent of Americans–about 70 million people–will have passed their 65th birthday and will be at risk for osteoarthritis. Some younger people get osteoarthritis from joint injuries, but osteoarthritis most....Who Has Osteoarthritis
  • Do You Have Osteoarthritis
    Usually, osteoarthritis comes on slowly. Early in the disease, joints may ache after physical work or exercise. Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint. Most often it occurs at the hands, knees, hips, or spine. Hands: Osteoarthritis of the fingers is one type of osteoarthritis that seems to have some hereditary characteristics; that is, it runs in....Do You Have Osteoarthritis
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+Osteoporosis

  • What is osteoporosis
    Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that affects both men and women, usually as they grow older. Fortunately, you can take steps to reduce your risk of developing osteoporosis and avoiding the often-debilitating bone fractures that can result from this disease. If you already have osteoporosis, new medications are available to slow or even stop....What is osteoporosis
  • Osteoporosis Diagnosis
    As the bone of the     spine thins, factures can occur that cause a loss of height and a forward     curvature of the spine. Who gets osteoporosis Osteoporosis is more common in older individuals and non-Hispanic white women, but can occur at any age, in men as well as in women, and in all....Osteoporosis Diagnosis
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+Paget's Disease

  • Pagets Disease
    What Is Paget’s Disease of Bone? Paget’s disease is a chronic disorder that can result in enlarged and misshapen bones. The excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue causes affected bone to weaken – resulting in bone pain, misshapen bones, fractures, and arthritis in the joints near the affected bones. Paget’s disease typically is localized,....Pagets Disease
  • Pagets Disease Treament
    What Is the Prognosis? The outlook for people diagnosed with Paget’s disease is generally good, particularly if treatment is given before major changes in the affected bones have occurred. Treatment can reduce symptoms but is not a cure. Osteogenic sarcoma, a form of bone cancer, is an extremely rare complication that occurs in less than....Pagets Disease Treament
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+PAN

  • Polyarteritis Nodosa
    Definition Polyarteritis nodosa is a serious blood vessel disease. Small and medium-sized arteries become swollen and damaged when they are attacked by rogue immune cells. Causes, incidence, and risk factors Polyarteritis nodosa is a disease of unknown cause that affects arteries, the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to organs and tissues. It occurs when....Polyarteritis Nodosa
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+Polymyalia Rheumatica (PMR)

  • What is Polymyalgia Rheumatica
    What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis? Polymyalgia rheumatica is a rheumatic disorder that is associated with moderate to severe muscle pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulder, and hip area. Stiffness is most noticeable in the morning. This disorder may develop rapidly–in some patients, overnight. In other people, polymyalgia rheumatica develops more gradually.....What is Polymyalgia Rheumatica
  • Polymayalgia Rheumatica
    What Are the Symptoms? The primary symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica are moderate to severe stiffness and muscle pain near the neck, shoulders, or hips. The stiffness is more severe upon waking or after a period of inactivity, and typically lasts longer than 30 minutes. People with this condition also may have flu-like symptoms, including fever,....Polymayalgia Rheumatica
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+Polymyositis

  • What is Polymyositis
    What is Polymyositis Polymyositis is an inflammatory muscle disease that causes varying degrees of decreased muscle power. The disease has a gradual onset and generally begins in the second decade of life. Polymyositis rarely affects persons under the age of 18. The most common symptom is muscle weakness, usually affecting those muscles that are closest....What is Polymyositis
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+Pseudogout (CPPD)

  • What is Pseudogout
    PSEUDOGOUT is also known as CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE DIHYDRATE DEPOSITION DISEASE What Is Pseudogout and How Is It Different from Gout? Pseudogout, is very similar to gout, but is caused by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in and around the joints. (It is, in fact, medically referred to as calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease, or....What is Pseudogout
  • Pseudogout Treatment
    WHAT ARE THE SPECIFIC DRUGS USED FOR PSEUDOGOUT? Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) block prostaglandins, the substances that dilate blood vessels and cause inflammation and pain. They are the drugs of choice for young, healthy adults without any other serious medical condition. NSAIDs are usually taken orally at their highest safe dosage....Pseudogout Treatment
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+Psoriatic Arthritis

  • What is Psoriatic Arthritis
    Approach to Diagnosing Psoriatic Arthritis: Psoriatic arthritis is a specific type of arthritis that develops in approximately 23percent of people who have psoriasis. The disease can be difficult to diagnose, particularly in its milder forms. The cause of psoriatic arthritis is unknown. Doctors suspect that genetic, environmental and immune factors play a role in the....What is Psoriatic Arthritis
  • Psoriatic Arthritis Symptoms
    Some cases of PA cause deterioration of the spine and deformity of the joints, leading to disability. It is important for people who seem to be developing severe psoriatic arthritis to begin appropriate treatment before irreversible changes occur. Early treatment can help slow the disease and preserve function and range of motion. Some early indicators....Psoriatic Arthritis Symptoms
  • Slowing Psoriatic Arthritis
    Step 2: Slowing the Disease Methotrexate Methotrexate is a drug used widely and successfully for treating PA and rheumatoid arthritis. Available by pill or injection, it is effective at relieving the symptoms associated with PA, and it may retard the destruction caused by certain forms of PA. Methotrexate usually is well tolerated in low doses.....Slowing Psoriatic Arthritis
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+Raynaud's Syndrome

  • What is Raynauds Syndrome
    What Is Raynaud’s Syndrome? Raynaud’s Syndrome is a disorder that affects the blood vessels in the fingers, toes, ears, and nose. This disorder is characterized by episodic attacks, called vasospastic attacks, that cause the blood vessels in the digits (fingers and toes) to constrict (narrow). Raynaud’s Syndrome can occur on its own, or it can....What is Raynauds Syndrome
  • Raynauds Syndrome Diagnosis
    How Does a Doctor Diagnose Raynaud’s Phenomenon? If a doctor suspects Raynaud’s phenomenon, he or she will ask the patient for a detailed medical history. The doctor will then examine the patient to rule out other medical problems. The patient might have a vasospastic attack during the office visit, which makes it easier for the....Raynauds Syndrome Diagnosis
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+Reactive Arthritis

  • Reactive Arthritis Symptoms
    Definition Reactive Arthritis (or Reiter’s syndrome) is a group of symptoms consisting of arthritis (inflammation of the joints), urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lining of the eye), and lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. Causes, incidence, and risk factors The exact cause of Reactive Arthritis is unknown, but it likely....Reactive Arthritis Symptoms
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+Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD)

  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    What is complex regional pain syndrome? Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that is believed to be the result of dysfunction in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Typical features include dramatic changes in the color and temperature of the skin over the affected limb or body part, accompanied by intense....Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Complex Regional Pain Symptoms
    What causes CRPS? Doctors aren’t sure what causes CRPS. In some cases the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in sustaining the pain. The most recent theories suggest that pain receptors in the affected part of the body become responsive to a family of nervous system messengers known as catecholamines. Animal studies indicate that....Complex Regional Pain Symptoms
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+Reiter's Syndrome

  • Reactive Arthritis Symptoms
    Definition Reactive Arthritis (or Reiter’s syndrome) is a group of symptoms consisting of arthritis (inflammation of the joints), urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lining of the eye), and lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. Causes, incidence, and risk factors The exact cause of Reactive Arthritis is unknown, but it likely....Reactive Arthritis Symptoms
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+Relapsing Polychondritis

  • Sarcoidosis
    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder that most often affects individuals between 20 and 40 years of age. Females appear to be affected more frequently than males. Sarcoidosis is characterized by the abnormal formation of inflammatory masses or nodules (granulomas) consisting of certain granular white blood cells (modified macrophages or epithelioid cells) in certain organs of....Sarcoidosis
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+Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • What is Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease, in which various joints in the body are inflamed, leading to swelling, pain, stiffness, and the possible loss of function. Some experts classify rheumatoid arthritis as type 1 or type 2.,Type 1, the less common form, lasts a few months at most and leaves no permanent disability.,Type 2....What is Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms
    Morning Stiffness in the Joints The hallmark symptom of rheumatoid arthritis is morning stiffness that lasts for at least an hour. (Stiffness from osteoarthritis, for instance, usually clears up within half an hour.) Even after remaining motionless for a few moments, the body can stiffen. Movement becomes easier again after loosening up. Swelling and Pain....Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms
  • Who Gets Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an ancient disease. Bone changes indicating the condition have been identified in skeletons thousands of years old. Rheumatoid Arthritis affects an estimated 2.1 million Americans, or 1% of the US population. Age Although the disease can occur at any age from childhood to old age, it usually starts in young adulthood,....Who Gets Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Rheumatoid Arthritis is unlikely to be due to a single cause, but rather a combination of genetic and environmental factors that trigger an abnormal immune response. The Inflammatory Process and Rheumatoid Arthritis The Normal Immune System Response. The inflammatory process is a byproduct of the body’s immune system, which fights infection and heals wounds and....Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Arthritis and Exercise
    WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH ARTHRITIS EXERCISE? People who are physically active are healthier and live longer than people who are inactive. This is true for everyone but especially for people with arthritis. In addition to the general benefits of regular exercise, certain kinds of exercise have shown important benefits for people with arthritis. Arthritis is....Arthritis and Exercise
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+Sarcoidosis

  • Sarcoidosis
    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder that most often affects individuals between 20 and 40 years of age. Females appear to be affected more frequently than males. Sarcoidosis is characterized by the abnormal formation of inflammatory masses or nodules (granulomas) consisting of certain granular white blood cells (modified macrophages or epithelioid cells) in certain organs of....Sarcoidosis
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+Scleroderma

  • What is Scleroderma
    What Is Scleroderma? Derived from the Greek words “sklerosis,” meaning hardness, and “derma,” meaning skin, scleroderma literally means hard skin. Though it is often referred to as if it were a single disease, scleroderma is really a symptom of a group of diseases that involve the abnormal growth of connective tissue, which supports the skin....What is Scleroderma
  • Affects of Scleroderma
    How Can Scleroderma Affect My Life? Having a chronic disease can affect almost every aspect of your life, from family relationships to holding a job. For people with scleroderma, there may be other concerns about appearance or even the ability to dress, bathe, or handle the most basic daily tasks. Here are some areas in....Affects of Scleroderma
  • Conditions Like Scleroderma
    What Other Conditions Can Look Like Scleroderma? Symptoms similar to those seen in scleroderma can occur with a number of other diseases. Here are some of the most common scleroderma lookalikes: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) (EE-oh-SIN-oh-FIL-ik fa-shi-EYE-tis): a disease that involves the fascia (FA-shuh), the thin connective tissue around the muscles, particularly those of the forearms,....Conditions Like Scleroderma
  • What Causes Scleroderma
    What Causes Scleroderma? Although scientists don’t know exactly what causes scleroderma, they are certain that people cannot catch it from or transmit it to others. Studies of twins suggest it is also not inherited. Scientists suspect that scleroderma comes from several factors that may include: Abnormal immune or inflammatory activity: Like many other rheumatic disorders,....What Causes Scleroderma
  • How Is Scleroderma Diagnosed
    How Is Scleroderma Diagnosed? Depending on your particular symptoms, a diagnosis of scleroderma may be made by a general internist, a dermatologist (a doctor who specializes in treating diseases of the skin, hair, and nails), an orthopaedist (a doctor who treats bone and joint disorders), a pulmonologist (lung specialist), or a rheumatologist (a doctor specializing....How Is Scleroderma Diagnosed
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+Sjogrens Syndrome

  • Sjogrens Syndrome
    Sjögren’s (SHOW-grins) syndrome is an autoimmune disease–that is, a disease in which the immune system turns against the body’s own cells. In Sjögren’s syndrome, the immune system targets moisture-producing glands and causes dryness in the mouth and eyes. Other parts of the body can be affected as well, resulting in a wide range of possible....Sjogrens Syndrome
  • What Else – Sjögrens Syndrome
    What Other Parts of the Body Are Involved in Sjögren’s Syndrome? The autoimmune response that causes dry eyes and mouth can cause inflammation throughout the body. People with Sjögren’s often have skin, lung, kidney, and nerve problems, as well as disorders of the digestive system and connective tissue. Following are examples of extraglandular problems. Skin....What Else – Sjögrens Syndrome
  • Sjogrens Syndrome Causes
    Who Gets Sjögren’s Syndrome? Experts believe 1 to 4 million people have the disease. Most–90 percent—are women. It can occur at any age, but it usually is diagnosed after age 40 and can affect people of all races and ethnic backgrounds. It’s rare in children, but it can occur. What Causes Sjögren’s Syndrome? Researchers think....Sjogrens Syndrome Causes
  • Sjögrens Syndrome Treatment
    What Type of Doctor Diagnoses and Treats Sjögren’s Syndrome? Because the symptoms of Sjögren’s are similar to those of many other diseases, getting a diagnosis can take time–in fact, the average time from first symptom to diagnosis ranges from 2 to 8 years. During those years, depending on the symptoms, a person might see a....Sjögrens Syndrome Treatment
  • Sjögrens Resources
    Does Sjögren’s Syndrome Cause Lymphoma? About 5 percent of people with Sjögren’s develop cancer of the lymph nodes, or lymphoma. The most common symptom of lymphoma is a painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin. In Sjögren’s syndrome, when lymphoma develops it often involves the salivary glands. Persistent enlargement of....Sjögrens Resources
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+Spinal Stenosis

  • What is Spinal Stenosis
    What Is Spinal Stenosis? Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of spaces in the spine (backbone) that results in pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots. This disorder usually involves the narrowing of one or more of three areas of the spine: (1) the canal in the center of the column of bones (vertebral or....What is Spinal Stenosis
  • Spinal Stenosis Symptoms
    What Are the Symptoms of Spinal Stenosis? The space within the spinal canal may narrow without producing any symptoms. However, if narrowing places pressure on the spinal cord, cauda equina, or nerve roots, there may be a slow onset and progression of symptoms. The neck or back may or may not hurt. More often, people....Spinal Stenosis Symptoms
  • What Causes Spinal Stenosis
    What Causes Spinal Stenosis? The normal vertebral canal (see fig. 4) provides adequate room for the spinal cord and cauda equina. Narrowing of the canal, which occurs in spinal stenosis, may be inherited or acquired. Some people inherit a small spinal canal (see fig. 5) or have a curvature of the spine (scoliosis) that produces pressure....What Causes Spinal Stenosis
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+Stills Disease

  • Stills Disease
    Definition Adult Still’s disease is an illness with fever, rash, and joint pain. It may lead to chronic arthritis. Causes, incidence, and risk factors The cause of Adult Still’s disease is unknown. The condition rarely occurs in adults. It is more common in children, where it is called Systemic Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. No risk factors....Stills Disease
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+Temporal Arteritis

  • What is Polymyalgia Rheumatica
    What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis? Polymyalgia rheumatica is a rheumatic disorder that is associated with moderate to severe muscle pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulder, and hip area. Stiffness is most noticeable in the morning. This disorder may develop rapidly–in some patients, overnight. In other people, polymyalgia rheumatica develops more gradually.....What is Polymyalgia Rheumatica
  • Polymayalgia Rheumatica
    What Are the Symptoms? The primary symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica are moderate to severe stiffness and muscle pain near the neck, shoulders, or hips. The stiffness is more severe upon waking or after a period of inactivity, and typically lasts longer than 30 minutes. People with this condition also may have flu-like symptoms, including fever,....Polymayalgia Rheumatica
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+Tendonitis/Bursitis

  • Tenonitis and Bursitis
    WHAT IS TENDONITIS? Tendonitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon. Tendons are the thick fibrous cords that attach muscles to bone. They transmit the power generated by a muscle contraction to move a bone. WHAT IS BURSITIS?  Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa. Bursae (the pleural of bursa) are small sacs located....Tenonitis and Bursitis
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+Triggerfinger

  • Trigger Finger
    What is Trigger Finger? Stenosing tenosynovitis, commonly known as trigger finger or trigger thumb, involves the pulleys and tendons in the hand that bend the fingers (see Diagram). The tendons work like long ropes connecting the muscles of the forearm with the bones of the fingers and thumb. In the finger, the pulleys form a....Trigger Finger
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+Wegeners

  • Wegeners Granulomatosis
    WHAT IS WEGENER’S GRANULOMATOSIS? Wegener’s granulomatosis is an uncommon disease, in which the blood vessels are inflamed (vasculitis). This inflammation damages important organs of the body by limiting blood flow to those organs and destroying normal tissue. Although the disease can involve any organ system, Wegener’s granulomatosis mainly affects the respiratory tract (sinuses, nose, trachea....Wegeners Granulomatosis
  • Wegeners Disease Diagnosis
    DIAGNOSIS To treat people with Wegener’s granulomatosis most effectively, doctors must diagnose the disease early. There are no blood tests that a doctor can use to diagnose Wegener’s granulomatosis, but blood tests are important to rule out other causes of illness and to determine which organ may be affected. Most blood tests can only suggest....Wegeners Disease Diagnosis
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Written by Rheumatologist-Los-Angeles